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Discrete Relations

This is the Relations.Discrete module of the Agda Universal Algebra Library.

{-# OPTIONS --without-K --exact-split --safe #-}

module Relations.Discrete where

-- Imports from Agda and the Agda Standard Library ----------------------------------------------
open import Agda.Primitive       using ( _⊔_ ; lsuc ) renaming ( Set to Type )
open import Data.Product         using ( _,_ ; _×_ )
open import Function.Base        using ( _∘_ )
open import Level                using ( Level ; Lift )
open import Relation.Binary      using ( IsEquivalence )
open import Relation.Binary.Core using ( _⇒_ ; _=[_]⇒_ ) renaming ( REL to BinREL ; Rel to BinRel )
open import Relation.Binary.Definitions
                                 using ( Reflexive ; Transitive )
open import Relation.Unary       using ( _∈_; Pred )
open import Relation.Binary.PropositionalEquality
                                 using ( _≡_ )

-- Imports from agda-algebras -------------------------------------------------------------------
open import Overture.Preliminaries using (_≈_ ; Π-syntax)

private variable α β ρ 𝓥 : Level

Here is a function that is useful for defining poitwise equality of functions wrt a given equality (see, e.g., the definition of _≈̇_ in the [Residuation.Properties][] module).

PointWise : {A : Type α}{B : Type β }
            (_≋_ : BinRel B ρ)  BinRel (A  B) _
PointWise {A = A}{B} _≋_ = λ (f g : A  B)   x  f x  g x

depPointWise : {A : Type α}{B : A  Type β }
               (_≋_ : {γ : Level}{C : Type γ}  BinRel C ρ)
              BinRel ((a : A)  B a) _
depPointWise {A = A}{B} _≋_ = λ (f g : (a : A)  B a)   x  f x  g x

Here is useful notation for asserting that the image of a function (the first argument) is contained in a predicate, the second argument (a “subset” of the codomain).

Im_⊆_ : {A : Type α}{B : Type β}  (A  B)  Pred B ρ  Type (α  ρ)
Im f  S =  x  f x  S

Operation symbols, unary relations, binary relations

The unary relation (or “predicate”) type is imported from Relation.Unary of the std lib.

Pred : ∀ {a} → Set a → (ℓ : Level) → Set (a ⊔ suc ℓ)
Pred A ℓ = A → Set ℓ

Sometimes it is useful to obtain the underlying type of a predicate.

PredType : {A : Type α}  Pred A ρ  Type α
PredType {A = A} _ = A

The binary relation types are called Rel and REL in the standard library, but we will call them BinRel and BinREL and reserve the names Rel and REL for the more general types of relations we define below and in the Relations.Continuous module.

The heterogeneous binary relation type is imported from the standard library and renamed BinREL.

BinREL : ∀ {ℓ} (A B : Type ℓ) (ℓ' : Level) → Type (ℓ-max ℓ (ℓ-suc ℓ'))
BinREL A B ℓ' = A → B → Type ℓ'

The homogeneous binary relation type is imported from the standard library and renamed BinRel.

BinRel : ∀{ℓ} → Type ℓ → (ℓ' : Level) → Type (ℓ ⊔ lsuc ℓ')
BinRel A ℓ' = REL A A ℓ'
Level-of-Rel : {A : Type α}{ : Level}  BinRel A   Level
Level-of-Rel {A = A}{} _ = 

Kernels

The kernel of f : A → B is defined informally by {(x , y) ∈ A × A : f x = f y}. This can be represented in type theory and Agda in a number of ways, each of which may be useful in a particular context. For example, we could define the kernel to be an inhabitant of a (binary) relation type, or a (unary) predicate type.

module _ {A : Type α}{B : Type β} where

 ker : (A  B)  BinRel A β
 ker g x y = g x  g y

 kerRel : {ρ : Level}  BinRel B ρ  (A  B)  BinRel A ρ
 kerRel _≈_ g x y = g x  g y

 kernelRel : {ρ : Level}  BinRel B ρ  (A  B)  Pred (A × A) ρ
 kernelRel _≈_ g (x , y) = g x  g y

 open IsEquivalence

 kerRelOfEquiv : {ρ : Level}{R : BinRel B ρ}  IsEquivalence R  (h : A  B)  IsEquivalence (kerRel R h)
 kerRelOfEquiv eqR h = record { refl = refl eqR ; sym = sym eqR ; trans = trans eqR }

 kerlift : (A  B)  (ρ : Level)  BinRel A (β  ρ)
 kerlift g ρ x y = Lift ρ (g x  g y)

 ker' : (A  B)  (I : Type 𝓥)  BinRel (I  A) (β  𝓥)
 ker' g I x y = g  x  g  y

 kernel : (A  B)  Pred (A × A) β
 kernel g (x , y) = g x  g y


-- The *identity relation* (equivalently, the kernel of a 1-to-1 function)
0[_] : (A : Type α)  {ρ : Level}  BinRel A (α  ρ)
0[ A ] {ρ} = λ x y  Lift ρ (x  y)

module _ {A : Type (α  ρ)} where

 -- Subset containment relation for binary realtions
 _⊑_ : BinRel A ρ  BinRel A ρ  Type (α  ρ)
 P  Q =  x y  P x y  Q x y

 ⊑-refl : Reflexive _⊑_
 ⊑-refl = λ _ _ z  z

 ⊑-trans : Transitive _⊑_
 ⊑-trans P⊑Q Q⊑R x y Pxy = Q⊑R x y (P⊑Q x y Pxy)

Operation type and compatibility

Notation. For consistency and readability, we reserve two universe variables for special purposes. The first of these is 𝓞 which shall be reserved for types that represent operation symbols. The second is 𝓥 which we reserve for types representing arities of relations or operations.

In the next subsection, we define types that are useful for asserting and proving facts about compatibility of operations with relations, but first we need a general type with which to represent operations. Here is the definition, which we justify below.

The type Op encodes the arity of an operation as an arbitrary type I : Type 𝓥, which gives us a very general way to represent an operation as a function type with domain I → A (the type of “tuples”) and codomain A. For example, the I-ary projection operations on A are represented as inhabitants of the type Op I A as follows.

-- The type of operations on A of arity I
Op : Type α  Type 𝓥  Type (α  𝓥)
Op A I = (I  A)  A

-- Example (projections)
π : {I : Type 𝓥} {A : Type α }  I  Op A I
π i x = x i

-- return the arity of a given operation symbol

arity[_] : {I : Type 𝓥} {A : Type α }  Op A I  Type 𝓥
arity[_] {I = I} f = I

-- lift a binary relation to the corresponding `I`-ary relation.

eval-rel : {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}  BinRel A ρ  BinRel (I  A) (𝓥  ρ)
eval-rel R u v =  i  R (u i) (v i)

eval-pred : {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}  Pred (A × A) ρ  BinRel (I  A) (𝓥  ρ)
eval-pred P u v =  i  (u i , v i)  P

If f : Op I and R : Rel A β, then we say f and R are compatible just in case ∀ u v : I → A, Π i ꞉ I , R (u i) (v i) → R (f u) (f v).

_preserves_ : {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}  Op A I  BinRel A ρ  Type (α  𝓥  ρ)
f preserves R  =  u v  (eval-rel R) u v  R (f u) (f v)

--shorthand notation for preserves
_|:_ : {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}  Op A I  BinRel A ρ  Type (α  𝓥  ρ)
f |: R  = (eval-rel R) =[ f ]⇒ R

-- predicate version of the compatibility relation
_preserves-pred_ : {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}  Op A I  Pred ( A × A ) ρ  Type (α  𝓥  ρ)
f preserves-pred P  =  u v  (eval-pred P) u v  (f u , f v)  P

_|:pred_ : {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}  Op A I  Pred (A × A) ρ  Type (α  𝓥  ρ)
f |:pred P  = (eval-pred P) =[ f ]⇒ λ x y  (x , y)  P


-- The two types just defined are logically equivalent.
module _ {A : Type α}{I : Type 𝓥}{f : Op A I}{R : BinRel A ρ} where
 compatibility-agreement : f preserves R  f |: R
 compatibility-agreement c {x}{y} Rxy = c x y Rxy
 compatibility-agreement' : f |: R  f preserves R
 compatibility-agreement' c = λ u v x  c x


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