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Isomorphisms of general structures

{-# OPTIONS --without-K --exact-split --safe #-}

module Base.Structures.Sigma.Isos where

-- Imports from the Agda Standard Library ------------------------------------------------------
open import Axiom.Extensionality.Propositional
                            using () renaming (Extensionality to funext)
open import Agda.Primitive  using ( _⊔_ ; lsuc ) renaming ( Set to Type )
open import Data.Product    using ( _,_ ; Σ-syntax ; _×_ ) renaming ( proj₁ to fst ; proj₂ to snd )
open import Function.Base   using ( _∘_ )
open import Level           using ( Level ; Lift ; lift ; lower )
open import Relation.Binary.PropositionalEquality using ( _≡_ ; refl ; cong ; cong-app )

-- Imports from the Agda Universal Algebra Library ---------------------------------------------
open import Overture        using ( ∣_∣ ; _≈_ ; ∥_∥ ; _∙_ ; lower∼lift ; lift∼lower )
open import Base.Structures.Sigma.Basic     using ( Signature ; Structure ; Lift-Struc )
open import Base.Structures.Sigma.Homs      using ( hom ; 𝒾𝒹 ; ∘-hom ; 𝓁𝒾𝒻𝓉 ; 𝓁ℴ𝓌ℯ𝓇 ; is-hom)
open import Base.Structures.Sigma.Products  using (  ; ℓp ;  ; 𝔖 ; class-prod )

private variable 𝑅 𝐹 : Signature

Recall, f ≈ g means f and g are extensionally (or pointwise) equal; i.e., ∀ x, f x ≡ g x. We use this notion of equality of functions in the following definition of isomorphism.

module _ {α ρᵃ β ρᵇ : Level} where

 record _≅_ (𝑨 : Structure  𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ})(𝑩 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {β}{ρᵇ}) : Type (α  ρᵃ  β  ρᵇ) where
  field
   to : hom 𝑨 𝑩
   from : hom 𝑩 𝑨
   to∼from :  to    from    𝒾𝒹 𝑩 
   from∼to :  from    to    𝒾𝒹 𝑨 

 open _≅_ public

That is, two structures are isomorphic provided there are homomorphisms going back and forth between them which compose to the identity map.

Properties of isomorphism of structures of sigma type

module _ {α ρᵃ : Level} where

 ≅-refl : {𝑨 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ}}  𝑨  𝑨
 ≅-refl {𝑨 = 𝑨} =
  record { to = 𝒾𝒹 𝑨 ; from = 𝒾𝒹 𝑨 ; to∼from = λ _  refl ; from∼to = λ _  refl }

module _ {α ρᵃ β ρᵇ : Level} where

 ≅-sym :  {𝑨 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ}}{𝑩 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {β}{ρᵇ}}
         𝑨  𝑩  𝑩  𝑨
 ≅-sym A≅B = record { to = from A≅B ; from = to A≅B ; to∼from = from∼to A≅B ; from∼to = to∼from A≅B }

module _  {α ρᵃ β ρᵇ γ ρᶜ : Level}
          (𝑨 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ}){𝑩 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {β}{ρᵇ}}
          (𝑪 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {γ}{ρᶜ}) where

 ≅-trans : 𝑨  𝑩  𝑩  𝑪  𝑨  𝑪

 ≅-trans ab bc = record { to = f ; from = g ; to∼from = τ ; from∼to = ν }
  where
  f1 : hom 𝑨 𝑩
  f1 = to ab
  f2 : hom 𝑩 𝑪
  f2 = to bc
  f : hom 𝑨 𝑪
  f = ∘-hom 𝑨 𝑪 f1 f2

  g1 : hom 𝑪 𝑩
  g1 = from bc
  g2 : hom 𝑩 𝑨
  g2 = from ab
  g : hom 𝑪 𝑨
  g = ∘-hom 𝑪 𝑨 g1 g2

  τ :  f    g    𝒾𝒹 𝑪 
  τ x = (cong  f2 (to∼from ab ( g1  x)))(to∼from bc) x

  ν :  g    f    𝒾𝒹 𝑨 
  ν x = (cong  g2 (from∼to bc ( f1  x)))(from∼to ab) x

Fortunately, the lift operation preserves isomorphism (i.e., it’s an algebraic invariant). As our focus is universal algebra, this is important and is what makes the lift operation a workable solution to the technical problems that arise from the noncumulativity of Agda’s universe hierarchy.

open Level

module _ {α ρᵃ : Level} where

 Lift-≅ : ( ρ : Level)  {𝑨 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ}}  𝑨  (Lift-Struc  ρ 𝑨)
 Lift-≅  ρ {𝑨} = record  { to = 𝓁𝒾𝒻𝓉  ρ 𝑨
                          ; from = 𝓁ℴ𝓌ℯ𝓇  ρ 𝑨
                          ; to∼from = cong-app lift∼lower
                          ; from∼to = cong-app (lower∼lift{α}{ρ}) }

module _  {α ρᵃ β ρᵇ : Level}
          {𝑨 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ}}{𝑩 : Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {β}{ρᵇ}} where

 Lift-Struc-iso : ( ρ ℓ' ρ' : Level)  𝑨  𝑩  Lift-Struc  ρ 𝑨  Lift-Struc ℓ' ρ' 𝑩

 Lift-Struc-iso  ρ ℓ' ρ' A≅B =  ≅-trans (Lift-Struc  ρ 𝑨) (Lift-Struc ℓ' ρ' 𝑩)
                                 ( ≅-trans (Lift-Struc  ρ 𝑨) 𝑩 (≅-sym (Lift-≅  ρ)) A≅B )
                                 (Lift-≅ ℓ' ρ')

Products of isomorphic families of algebras are themselves isomorphic. The proof looks a bit technical, but it is as straightforward as it ought to be.

module _  {ι : Level}{I : Type ι}
          {α ρᵃ β ρᵇ : Level} {fe : funext ρᵇ ρᵇ}
          {fiu : funext ι α} {fiw : funext ι β} where

  ⨅≅ :  {𝒜 : I  Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {α}{ρᵃ}}{ : I  Structure 𝑅 𝐹 {β}{ρᵇ}}
       (∀ (i : I)  𝒜 i   i)   𝒜   

  ⨅≅ {𝒜 = 𝒜}{} AB = record  { to = ϕ , ϕhom
                             ; from = ψ , ψhom
                             ; to∼from = ϕ~ψ
                             ; from∼to = ψ~ϕ
                             }
   where
   ϕ :   𝒜      
   ϕ a i =  to (AB i)  (a i)

   ϕhom : is-hom ( 𝒜) ( ) ϕ
   ϕhom =  ( λ r a x 𝔦  fst  to (AB 𝔦)  r  z  a z 𝔦) (x 𝔦))
           , λ f a  fiw  i  snd  to (AB i)  f  z  a z i) )

   ψ :        𝒜 
   ψ b i =  from (AB i)  (b i)

   ψhom : is-hom ( ) ( 𝒜) ψ
   ψhom =  ( λ r a x 𝔦  fst  from (AB 𝔦)  r  z  a z 𝔦) (x 𝔦))
           , λ f a  fiu  i  snd  from (AB i)  f  z  a z i) )

   ϕ~ψ : ϕ  ψ   𝒾𝒹 ( ) 
   ϕ~ψ 𝒃 = fiw λ i  (to∼from (AB i)) (𝒃 i)

   ψ~ϕ : ψ  ϕ   𝒾𝒹 ( 𝒜) 
   ψ~ϕ a = fiu λ i  (from∼to (AB i)) (a i)

← Base.Structures.Sigma.Homs Base.Categories →